Thursday, May 30, 2013

Bring about ICTs for improving road safety in advanced world as well as Bangladesh

Bring about ICTs for improving road safety in advanced world as well as Bangladesh

Mamun Monzurul Aziz
ADE, 24th BCS (Telecommunication)
(SDE, Bangabhaban, BTCL, DHAKA)

1. ICTs for road safety
The Global status report on road safety 2013 presents information on road safety from 182 countries, which points out that the total number of road traffic deaths worldwide remains unacceptably high at 1.24 million per year (Source: Subsequently road safety is a major concern for modern world. On the other side the modern world became such modern mostly due to the blessings of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) undoubtedly. ICTs are no longer a luxury for even developing countries. It is indispensible for many aspects. This is why the theme ICTs and improving road safetyfor World Telecommunication and Information Society Day 2013 is very sensible, practical and substantial.

Monday, May 27, 2013

ICT in Road Safety : Prospects, Challenges to Effective ICT Development in Road Safety & Rescue Operations in Bangladesh

 ICT in Road Safety  :  Prospects, Challenges to Effective ICT Development in Road Safety & Rescue Operations in Bangladesh

Md. Shahinur Rahman
Divisional Engineer, BTCL,Khilgaon, Dhaka


Bangladesh is a country in South Asia with 150 million inhabitants. It has total length of road under the Roads and Highways Department around 7699.94 Km (Wikipedia,2011). It is estimated that mechanized road transport carry about 70% of the country’s total passenger and cargo volume. Its contribution of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is 6.95%. According to police, road accidents claims 4000 lives and injure 5000 per year. But according to WHO (2009), the actual fatalities could will be 20038 per year. About 70% road accidents fatalities occur in rural area and 50% of them occurred on national and regional highways [1].  Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rate in road accidents – higher than 85 deaths per ten thousand registered motor vehicles every year. Where as, in developed countries the number of motorized vehicles is many times more, the rate is below 5.
There has been an alarming rise in road accidents, significantly highway accidents, in Bangladesh over the past few years.

 At least 46 people were killed and more than 200 injured in 31 road accidents across the country in the last four days including the three-day Eid holiday --- The Daily Star, November 10th 2011.

ICT provides a lot of tools to assist in managing road safety, but general acceptability and awareness is the big question. In developing economies like Bangladesh, supportive government legislation and increased media awareness are vital in reducing ignorance and user apathy.
Information and telecommunication systems are enabling ‘intelligent’ vehicles to interact with other vehicles and also the road environment, thereby making the road safer as a means of mobility.
ICT Defined
Generally, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is the fusion of Telecommunications, Electronics and Computer Information Systems used to retrieve, analyze, store, process, transmit, secure and intelligently interpret digital data either in storage or in transit. This fusion has so many segments including digital storage, Database Management Systems (DBMS), networking, data security, fibre optics transmission, VSAT connectivity, WiMAX networks, mobile electronics, plasma sensitivity, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), disaster recovery, software engineering and most importantly the internet and its web component.
Road Safety Defined
Road safety is the combination of all measures, activities, operations, awareness and regulatory enforcements aimed at the protection of lives and properties during all phases of road mobility including periods of distress. Road safety comprises of all guidelines, strategies and implementations focused on making road transportation effective, smooth and safe for the preservation of lives, property and services.

Vulnerable Road Users
While the reduction of road fatalities is the target of road safety, special attention is usually focused on the following road users either because of their peculiar disadvantaged means of road mobility, their emotional status or their conditions.

1.   Learner drivers
2.   Pedestrians
3.   Athletes
4.   Disabled and physically challenged
5.   Cyclists
6.   Demonstrators
7.   Rally makers
8. Drive under influence of alcohol, drugs etc;
9. Un-utilization of helmets, seat belts etc;
10. To walk on the roads instead of using the   footpath;
11. To cross the road without using the foot over bridge;
12. Illegal competition to overtake the vehicle.
§         Over - speeding
§         Over - Loading

Road Safety Technology
Road safety technology is the application of Technology to facilitate safe mobility, promote easier dissemination of road traffic information, ensure comfortable manipulation of road machineries, improve the efficiency of road traffic signs/alerts, promote mass awareness of safety consciousness, facilitate more effective rescue operations and improve the monitoring of the changing conditions of roads and machineries. ICT in road safety technologies is usually applied through the collation, storage, analysis and processing of vital electronic data including: weather readings, accident location co-ordinates, precise remote traffic light adjustment, warning thresholds, speed chart, driver alertness, and other data attributes.
A VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks) is a technology that uses moving cars as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and in turn create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created which can be operated without the need for a fixed infrastructure. Such a topology is suitable for rapid deployment of a wireless network i.e. VANET [2].

Broadcasting refers to a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously. It is a method where a single node transfers message and all other nodes receive it within range. When a broadcast occurs, the broadcasting node can’t receive any data unless it stops broadcasting.

Wireless Ad-Hoc networks have special characteristics related to node mobility, node self-configuration and the lack of centralized access points (AP’s) [3]. Each car can behave as OBU (On Board Unit) that is as node and we can also have RSU. Thus the number of vehicles is never zero on highway in Bangladesh. 

It is very important for a populated country like Bangladesh because accidents are very much common here and many people dies. Thus a lot of lives can be saved through proper utilization of VANET features and a lot of money also.

Areas of Application of ICT in Road Safety
Intelligent Traffic Systems (ITS) utilize ICTs to manage driving, traffic, transportation and all factors that are important in one way or the other to transport safety, design and education. ITS systems could be in-vehicle systems, or external infrastructure support. Interfacing road infrastructure hardware with in-vehicle warning and control systems is another road safety groundbreaking technology.
1. Point to point communications (PPC): PPC enables Road safety officials to use high-speed radio systems to communicate between multiple locations and for vehicle-to-vehicle driver communications.

2. Wireless networks (Wifi and WiMAX): Hand-held, portable electronic devices leverage existing cellular and private wireless networks to provide a one-touch access to traffic data, weather condition reports, transport news, etc. The efficiency of the systems builds on the currency of their data which updates in real-time and fully accessible from web applications (webapps) within contemporary smartphones, blackberries, android, iPad and other handheld electronic devices. Widely-used wireless standards include the Wireless Fidelity (Wifi) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).

3. Web-based road safety portals:
Road safety web portals enable the continuous publication of interactive resources which can equip stakeholders with vital statistics concerning the true nature of traffic conditions, accident spots, nearby health institutions, and real-time distress calls. For effective road safety operations, the use of internet technologies provides an online data interactivity for the sharing of vital statistics among stakeholders in absolute real-time.
4. Automated Emergency Call System (eCall):
In alliance with reputable mobile network providers, the eCall is a communication system that designates a unique telephone number (often toll-free) exclusively for reporting emergencies and distress conditions. eCall can also be integrated into web-based road safety portals to give it wider access beyond the bounds of the cellular network’s coverage area.
5. IP-based CCTV and surveillance cameras:
Traffic Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) systems integrated together with surveillance cameras are video-based vehicle/motion detection systems used for remote surveillance of traffic situations to track offenders, to build usable traffic data and to provide an archive for future road transport enhancements.
6. Speed monitors:
Strategically positioned along highways, speed sensors are two-way electronic communication devices that estimate the relative speed of road vehicles, and compares it with the stipulated speed limits. In advanced implementations, any speed over-shoot beyond the stated limit triggers a zoom-in from the nearest camera and the vehicle is instantly traced while video capture/ recording is automatically activated. A signal is also instantaneously relayed to a nearby patrol team and such a vehicle can be followed and the driver quickly apprehended.
7. Car navigation systems (Driver support systems):
These are a range of intelligent systems that warn the driver based on information received from a central database or other environmental interpretations of what may appear to be adverse condition that may lead to a crisis if no precautionary measures are taken. Such warnings may include bad weather, obstructed lanes, speed limits, slippery lane, etc.
8. Sensing technologies and harmonic RADAR systems
9. Number plate recognition technology : BRTA has introduced this technology very recently in our country.
Challenges to Effective ICT Deployment in Road Safety and Rescue Operations:
The reasons for the slow adoption of ICT to improve road safety are numerous. The following are a few notable causes.
1. Technology misconception
2. Bureaucratic bottlenecks
3. Inadequate funding for ICT projects
4. Corruption
5. Unstable Power Supply
6. Economic downturn
7. Expensive bandwidth
8. Mass apathy and resistance to change
Benefits of the Application of ICTs in Road Safety
The obvious challenges of adoption of ICTs in road safety are not sufficient to disregard their immeasurable benefits captured as follows below.
1. Reduction in road mortality and casualties.
2. Improved post-accident response healthcare and support.
3. Creation of job helps to reduce the unemployment rate.
4. Economic growth
5. Promotion of gradual industrialization.
6. Improvement in foreign investors’ interest.
7. Reduction in travel time, pollution, traffic congestion and road accidents.
8. Assists drivers to avoid accidents.
9. They are used to generate vital statistics in road usage and electronic traffic management which can in turn be used to improve performance and to plan for future enhancements.
Protecting Road Safety Electronic Data
It is not just enough amassing huge data for road safety management, every electronic data, including sensitive road safety data is useless if it is not well protected. This aspect of data protection, known as cyber security, is aimed at ensuring that electronic data is kept safe from corruption and undue modification and that access to it is suitably controlled. Several cyber security objectives to protect data exist but the three listed below are the most important of all. These are generally used as standard benchmark to qualify the level of electronic data security and information assurance. Others information protective measures, safeguards and mechanisms derive from them.
1. Data Integrity:
This is the protection of information from unauthorized or inadvertent modification. It is an assurance that the information cannot be altered either in storage or in transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected and reversed.
 2. Data Confidentiality:
This is the limiting of access to information to authorized persons only. Data confidentiality in the management of road safety electronic data is used to keep the content of information from all but those authorized to have, see, or use them.
 3. Data Availability:
Road safety electronic data/resources should be readily available to those who need them, and when they need them. The information should be easily accessible without hindrance by all parties that have the authority to view, edit, transfer, or otherwise use it to enhance road safety operations and ensure safety of lives and properties.
Conclusion and Recommendations
ICTs seek to find ways of dealing with each of the factors that lead to road accidents including, but not limited to: alcohol, novice drivers, older drivers, careless drivers, bad roads, reckless driving, faulty vehicles, poor visibility, fatigue and drug influence.
Some simple recommendations to avoid road accidents are :
1.       To avoid Reckless driving, Over- speeding and Over- Loading;
2.       Defective vehicles can not be derived;
3.       Provide adequate training to drivers and pedestrians;
4.       Roads should be properly constructed & maintained;
5.       Strong implementation of Traffic rules & regulations;
6.       Pedestrians have to use the footpath instead of walking on the road;
7.       Safe driving without having alcohol, drugs etc. must be ensured;
8.       Use foot over bridge or zebra crossing while passing the road;.
9.       Utilize helmets, seat belts, etc.;
10.   100% concentration is required while driving the Vehicle;

Besides these, huge programs should be adopted regarding public awareness of road safety by different NGO’s and other organizations by the side of the Govt. Fortunately, BRTA has taken some road safety instructions awareness program for public, drivers, passengers, pedestrians by publishing in the daily News papers periodically.  
Safety professionals should understand eSafety as vehicle-based intelligent safety systems capable of using computerized devices and programs to improve road safety in terms of reducing exposure to risk, crash avoidance, injury reduction and automatic post-crash notification of collision.
In many developing economies including Bangladesh, various factors ranging from corruption to policy non-sustainability have been blamed for the backwardness and slow adoption of ICTs in general, and its application to road safety, in particular. The good news however is that this backwardness shall not be for too long, as advanced Technologies are globally being applied to many transportation problems. ICTs’ adoption in optimizing road safety and rescue operations are helping to achieve this ambition of a drastic reduction in road deaths.
The traffic police department has a crucial role to play in identifying and holding accountable reckless driving, speeding and unstable or overloaded vehicles. The maintenance, repair and expansion of roads coupled with setting up dividers on national highways, cautioning signals for hazardous locations, disseminating information on driving and road safety to masses through media and exemplary punishment for violating traffic laws are some of the main areas that need to be worked on rigorously by the government.
As citizens, we too have a role to play in ensuring road safety. While travelling in public transports, passengers should protest and stop speeding and reckless driving by bus and taxi drivers. Owners of motor vehicles should ensure that employed drivers have genuine licenses, are properly trained and drive responsibly. Road safety education to pedestrians, especially children, within the communities by community leaders is also a good way to promote road safety.
Government and notable authorities are also encouraged to show a higher degree of interest in acquisition of ICTs, and make conscious efforts towards their operational application in road safety if “Digital Bangladesh Vision-2021” is to be realized.


References/Sources :- Information were Collected from the following websites, Journals & newspapers.

1. Prof. Dr. Mazharul Hoque, “Improving Highway Safety in Bangladesh: Road Improvement and the Potential Application of iRAP”, Seminar organized by the department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, October 15, 2010.
2. K. Pahlavan and P. Krishnamurthy, “Principles of Wireless Networks”, Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2001.
3. Mostafa M. I. Taha, “Broadcasting Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs)”, Thesis of Master of Science under the department of Electrical Engineering of Assiut University, Egypt, 2008.
4. Website: 1. to-Machine
6.The Statistical Information is collected from BRTC Website(
8. The Daily Star, dated, Nov-10, 2011.
9. BRTA Annual Report-2008
10. Images are taken form hl=bn&sclient=psy-ab&q=Images+of+VANET

Use of Advanced Optical Transmission Technologies for Redundancy in the Submarine Cable Systems of Bangladesh

Md. Monwar Hossain                                                                       Parvez M. Ashraf  


Broadband internet has become a bare necessity for people of all walks and global
communication has become highly incorporated into our daily life, professional, social or
personal. High rates of bandwidth growth have been forecasted throughout the world as
people today are using numerous features of the web such as browsing, emailing, blogging,
twitting, social networking (such as, facebooking), online gaming, audio/video conferencing,
audio/video streaming, listening to internet radio, watching internet TV, VPN, etc. Meeting
the rapidly increasing demand for capacity in the global and national information
superhighways is a great challenge as ever. Moreover, with the advent of 3G Mobile services
and LTE, people are and will be using their cell phones and mobile devices to get all kinds of
internet  facilities whenever and wherever they want. Thus, it is a great challenge to address
the exponential growth of global bandwidth; and more so to ensure the availability on a 7 x 24
basis, taking into account the natural and manmade calamities that can occur anywhere at
any time.

The transmission technologies today are going through major innovations and developments
to meet up the requirements of redundancy as well as capacity in the core communication
systems and networks. Various products, components and technology solutions are available
today  for strengthening the international core network infrastructure. Telecom  service
providers  are benefited by such technologies in addressing the  bandwidth  requirements as
well as ensuring the  availability  of links and networks. The  solutions or products can be
applied to the whole or parts of the systems according specific requirements, such as cutting
down operating costs, reducing latency, enhancing QoS, reducing complexity, enabling more
protection and restorability, and of course, ensuring redundancy.

Some of the new developments in submarine and terrestrial optical transmission technologies
are briefly described in this article. A number of these features might be implemented with the new submarine cable (for example, SEA-ME-WE-5), Bangladesh has planned to join and also, with the interconnecting submarine cable between the existing and the new one. 

Submarine & Terrestrial Optical  Cable Systems Using Coherent Detection Technology and Integrated on Simplified Architecture

The  global network  of today  is made of both undersea  submarine  and terrestrial network
segments linked together to connect almost all continents of the world.

In the present systems,  a submarine cable would land on the  Cable Landing Station (CLS),
which houses  equipment  pertaining to both  submarine  (or, wet)  and terrestrial  segments.
Usually, the major Point-of-Presence (POP)s would be placed in the terrestrial/metro network,
with a backhaul link running from the CLS to the said POPs. Traditionally, the submarine and
terrestrial systems had adopted different networking architectures and technologies.
However, the inefficient network demarcation point which is typically situated between the
SIE (SDH Interconnection Equipment) and Terrestrial LTE (Line Terminal Equipment) regarding the separation of submarine (wet) and  terrestrial (dry) segments could be  eliminated to facilitate an integrated system of core networking.

Use of relatively new optical transport technologies specially the coherent detection and the
Reconfigurable  Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers  (ROADMs) can  significantly compact  the CLS
network configuration, with most of the remaining functionality and associated equipment
physically relocated into the inland Metro/Terrestrial PoP making it a major data center. This
equipment relocation  can be  made possible  by virtue of the significantly increased
interconnections  offered  by  these two technology products:  coherent  detection and the
photonic switching capabilities of ROADMs.

The proprietary (related to specific vendors) implementation of this  coherent transmission
technology  in DSP (Digital Signal Processing) chipsets typically incorporates other important
functionalities such as Soft Forward Error Correction (soft FEC) which is adjustable for latency
and signal transmission distance according to requirements. This would significantly  increase
achievable distances  for signal transmission. Therefore, it is possible to move  the submarine
wavelength termination point from the CLS to inland  metro PoP, which opens up  new
possibilities for CLS and related designs. Incoming wavelengths from the submarine cable can
be optically switched inland using either fixed filters or flexible ROADMs. ROADMs also offer
remote control feature and is a key enabler of agile photonic networks. Furthermore, keeping
wavelengths in the optical domain for as long as possible reduces latency. The equipment
consumes less power and are of small footprint. Therefore,  the overall operational network
complexity is also reduced and the  global network  simplification and its associated benefits
increases service provider’s  competiveness.  The inefficient submarine-to-terrestrial network
demarcation point is eliminated by relocated SLTE functionality inland while switching
wavelengths from the submarine cable to the inland PoP or the next CLS.
SLTE functionality can also be  physically  integrated  with an intelligent switch which will
further eliminate inefficient client-side handoffs between  the  previously distinct  SLTE and
intelligent switches. This simplifies the global network even further by integrating more
traditional CLS functionality directly into the inland PoP;  only the switching of light will be
performed by the Wavelength Selective  Switch (WSS) within the ROADM  and  the  power
management system (PFE & others) will be still  in the CLS. Integrating SLTE functionality into
inland switches running a control plane will prospectively facilitate the formation of intelligent
mesh networks, which ensures bandwidth availability and network connectivity/redundancy.
The result of this convergence is the elimination of the demarcation point between what was
traditionally  been  referred to as  the  “submarine” and “terrestrial” networks. The ability to
seamlessly interconnect networks overland and undersea helps  to  achieve global networks
that are simpler to design, manage, and maintain. Also, end-to-end network security is much
strengthened as the traffic is carried in the optical domain from PoPs to PoPs, specially when
coherent transmission technology is used, as it is far harder to tap and decode when
compared to network nodes that allow for access to traffic in the electrical domain. The SLTE
relocated directly into the inland PoP  could be  easier to manage and protect  in general as
compared to a CLS physically located in a rather sparsely populated and remote beach area or coastline location.

Evolution of Network Intelligence and the Control Plane

The control plane  functions as the brain of an intelligent network which  autonomously
maintains an accurate database of all network resources to decide on the optimal connection.
It is essentially comprised of special hardware and software that make a self-aware network.

Traditional networks employ centralized intelligence, or network management software  that
runs on  an external workstation for connection management.  Networks with  intelligent
control planes  possess a sort of  nervous system through which connection management is
autonomously performed by the network itself, within predefined conditions. Connections are
autonomously created and deleted via machine-to-machine signaling and routing protocols.
However, a  mesh network governed by intelligent control  plane technology will  make
connection management, protection, and restoration decisions based on the policies created
by human operators and  the network operator is in complete control of an intelligent mesh
network at all times, although connections are autonomously created and deleted.  This
fundamental paradigm  shift in connection management, from an external centralized model
to an  internal decentralized model, brings network operators  some important advantages in
terms of rapid service provision. Significant savings in capital and operational expenditures are
made possible.

Technology Advancement through DWDM Modulation Techniques & PM-QPSK

The optical line terminal equipments of the present and near future need to be able to handle
very high speed traffic transported to a long distance. Advanced optical network technologies  
such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) form the  foundation for
communications infrastructures of today, enabling worldwide traffic aggregation and metro
and regional network consolidation. Because of the notable technical developments on the
DWDM components, it can be said that DWDM approaches have surpassed the time division
multiplexing (TDM) for the high speed transmission over long distance which can be even on a
single fiber instead of a pair of fibers for transmission and reception with a specific terminal.
The key breakthrough factor of the solution has been the coherent receiver. For the past
three decades or so, optical system receivers have been working by detection of the
transmitted signal’s intensity with on-off keying.

The bit-rate of a channel can be described as the simple product of the baud rate or symbol-
rate, bits per symbol and the number of carriers used. Recent commercial coherent systems at
40 Gbps and 100 Gbps have exploited all of these dimensions. The technology that made this
100 G transmission possible is Polarization Multiplexed QPSK modulation  (PM-QPSK) with a
coherent receiver. Modulation is required to ensure propagation, to perform multiple
accesses and to enhance the SNR, as well as to achieve bandwidth compression.  PM-QPSK
modulation technique would decrease the baud or symbol rate of the system, using four bits
per symbol, keeping the optical spectrum four times narrower than the unreduced baud rate.
Because of the capability to pass through multiple Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (OADMs)
and its practical PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) tolerance, PM-QPSK is recognized as a
viable format for deployment within 50GHz-spaced systems. The present “state of the art” for
DWDM in 2012 or 2013 may be still 100 Gbps. However, the growth in the internet has
created requirement for new scale for bandwidth and that is preferably without adding any
more complexity to the operations. It is clear that for a high capacity network beyond the
100G, in addition to a move toward larger, more powerful transport switches, the
mechanisms of DWDM optical transmission may have to change.

Technology of ROADM

Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs) are to deliver new flexibility to
DWDM networks by enabling dynamic, transparent optical wavelength add/drop functioning.  

ROADMs add considerable agility and robustness to network architectures, vastly improving
service and lowering the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). ROADM Technology delivers greater
flexibility and cost  savings on optical transport platforms and enables add/drop  of optical
channels anywhere within an optical network linear  span or ring. These channels can be
wavelengths with any bandwidth  rate  2.5, 10, and 40 Gbps currently; 100 Gbps. ROADM
technology also allows traffic to pass through a network  location transparently in the optical
domain without Optical Electrical-Optical (OEO) conversions, as shown in Figure 1. ROADMs
ease the planning process for DWDM-based networks by allowing the addition, removal, or
modification  of one or more wavelength  channels within a network  automatically, with
minimal user  intervention. Thus, the new ROADM technology are now-a-days used to design
flexible and efficient branching units used in large submarine cable systems.

Application of new Technologies in the Consortium Submarine Cable

Existing SMW-4 cable is the only submarine cable that has kept Bangladesh connected with
the international information superhighway. Due to any calamity or other reasons, if this
cable gets  into any kind of physical damage or disruption, country’s international long
distance telecommunication would suffer badly. That’s why Bangladesh has been working for
long to acquire a second submarine cable so that the international links can be maintained
without outage.

It is expected that Bangladesh would join a consortium submarine cable. The prospective
submarine cable would be built using high capacity handling DWDM and Coherent detection
technology, and highly flexible ROADM. Depending on the supplier’s equipment, it is likely
that sophisticated intelligent control plane technology will be implemented.

Bangladesh will join as a branch party to this submarine cable. While the cost per party will
depend on various factors, the cost can be reduced if the branch can be shared with another
party. There is a possibility that Myanmar might  join  the Consortium  and share the branch
cable with Bangladesh. In that case, Bangladesh could save as much as 10 million US Dollars.

The “Branch on Branch” architecture for Branch sharing  might  be implemented in various
ways. Some typical situations are as given in the figures (Fig.2, 3 & 4):

Interconnecting Submarine Cable Between the Landing Stations  and DWDM Transmission Backbone

A plan has been made to interconnect the two submarine cable systems through another
submarine cable. In this way, the two landing stations Cox’s Bazar (for SMW-4) and Kuakata
(proposed for the second submarine cable) would get interlinked.

The estimated length of this link would be 235 Km. It would be made of 2 (two) fiber pairs
with an initial capacity of 100 Gbps/per fiber pair and 16 Tbps as design capacity. The
modulation scheme to be used: PM-QPSK (Polarization Multiplexed- Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying). Other important feature is this submarine cable would be a repeater less system with
a design life of about 25 years.  

The Interconnecting Submarine cable is shown in Fig.5

Fig.5: Proposed Interconnecting Submarine Cable Between the Two Landing Stations: Kuakata and Cox’s Bazar

The two submarine cable systems will also be interconnected through a terrestrial  DWDM
backbone, shown in Fig.6

Therefore, interconnection through both the Submarine Cable and Terrestrial Systems will
ensure the strong security and redundancy in the Submarine Cable Infrastructure of Bangladesh which will keep the core communication infrastructure seamlessly connected to the Information Superhighway.


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Kaminow,T. Li & A. E. Willner
2.  Fiber Optics Engineering by M. Azadeh
3.  Performance of Dual-Polarization QPSK for Optical Transport Systems by K. Roberts, M.
O’Sullivan, K. T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, & C. Laperle
4.  Digital Coherent Receiver Technology for 100 Gb/s Optical Transport Systems by J. C.
Rasmussen, T. Hoshida & H. Nakashima
5.  Introduction to DWDM Technology by Cisco Systems
6.  Optical Internetworking Forum:
7.  Suboptic Forum:
11. Latest Technology of Optical Transmission System (40G/100G Solutions) Deployed in
SMW-4 Submarine Cable Upgrade and the Bandwidth Situation in Bangladesh by Md.
Monwar Hossain & Parvez M. Ashraf (published in Teletech 2011)

Md. Monwar Hossain: Managing Director, BSCCL

Parvez M. Ashraf: Deputy General Manager (Bandwidth Planning), BSCCL